By 1860 the population of the North was more than double that of the South, and the lopsided congressional representation that that created emboldened the North to plunder the South with the heavily-protectionist Morrill Tariff, passed by the House of Representatives during the 1859-60 session, before any state had seceded. The tariff on mostly manufactured goods, which more than doubled the average tariff rate from 15% to 33%, was heavily discriminatory against the agricultural South. Then, in his first inaugural address, Abraham Lincoln threatened “invasion” and “bloodshed” in any state that refused to pay this newly-doubled federal tax. (In the same address he assured the world that he had no intentions whatsoever to disturb Southern slavery, and even endorsed the Corwin Amendment to the Constitution, which had passed the Republican-controlled House and Senate, that would have prohibited the federal government from ever interfering with slavery).
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